Hybrid halide perovskite has recently emerged as a new class of low cost semiconductor for optoelectronic applications. They have received widespread attention as an absorber in photovoltaic cells, where they have achieved a remarkable increase in solar cell efficiency; from 9% in 2012 to 21% in 2017.
Despite this high efficiency, further research into the fundamental physics and stability of hybrid halide perovskite is required. One important area of research is understanding how temperature affects the properties of the halide perovskite. Photovoltaic cells are exposed to a wide range of climates, with ambient temperatures ranging from -20°C to 40°C. Furthermore, the actual working temperature inside the cell could greatly exceed the ambient temperature due to heating from solar irradiation, and has been shown to be as high as 70°C in some cases. It is therefore crucial to understand the influence that temperature has on the photophysics and performance of perovskite photovoltaic cells.
The FLS1000 Photoluminescence Spectrometer can be equipped with a range of cryostat accessories that enable the photoluminescence properties of a material to be studied over a temperature range of 2.3 K to 800 K. In this application note the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence of methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite is investigated using the FLS1000 with the liquid nitrogen cryostat accessory.
The term perovskite refers to any compound which has an ABX3 crystal structure, where A and B are two different cations and X is the anion. The highest performing and most widely studied perovskite for photovoltaic applications is methylammonium lead iodide (CH3 NH3 PbI3), also known as MAPI, the structure of which is shown in Figure 2.
The lead cation (blue) is located in the centre of a cube of methylammonium cations (green) and is surrounded by an octahedron of iodide anions (red). There are three different phases of the crystal structure that MAPI can adopt, with the temperature controlling which phase is thermodynamically stable. At room temperature MAPI is known to be in the tetragonal phase where two of the unit cell lengths are equivalent (a = b ≠ c).W At lower temperatures the tetragonal symmetry is broken and MAPI adopts the orthorhombic structure where all three unit cell lengths are different (a ≠ b ≠ c).5 At elevated temperatures the symmetry of the structure increases, with MAPI adopting the cubic crystal structure (a = b = c).5 The temperature of the transitions between these three structures can be determined using photoluminescence spectroscopy.
Download the complete halide perovskite application note and learn about the methods and materials used and the research results: Observing Phase Transitions in a Halide Perovskite Using Temperature Dependent Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
If you conducting halide perovskite research and would like to find out how our FLS1000 Photoluminescence Spectrometer can help you with your work, why not contact one of our sales team today email us at email@example.com or give us a call on +44 (0) 1506 425300
If you have enjoyed reading our Halide Perovskite Application Note, why note sign-up to our infrequent newsletter via our red Sign-up button below.